DIY Unicorn At the price of surprise Head licorne Paper model L 3D Animal trophy trophy,,Animal,yangtalad.ac.th,Craft Supplies Tools , Patterns How To , Patterns Blueprints,Paper,model,,Head,,Unicorn,/drammer33122.html,licorne,3D,$6,L,Paper,DIY $6 DIY Unicorn Head, licorne Paper Animal trophy, 3D Paper model, L Craft Supplies Tools Patterns How To Patterns Blueprints DIY Unicorn At the price of surprise Head licorne Paper model L 3D Animal trophy trophy,,Animal,yangtalad.ac.th,Craft Supplies Tools , Patterns How To , Patterns Blueprints,Paper,model,,Head,,Unicorn,/drammer33122.html,licorne,3D,$6,L,Paper,DIY $6 DIY Unicorn Head, licorne Paper Animal trophy, 3D Paper model, L Craft Supplies Tools Patterns How To Patterns Blueprints

DIY Unicorn At the price of surprise Head licorne Paper model L 3D El Paso Mall Animal trophy

DIY Unicorn Head, licorne Paper Animal trophy, 3D Paper model, L

$6

DIY Unicorn Head, licorne Paper Animal trophy, 3D Paper model, L

3D Paper Trophy Unicorn Head.

Do it yourself and decorate your interior with this wonderful Unicorn#39;s Head papercraft sculpture!

You are buying the digital instructions templates only, NOT THE PHYSICAL MODEL!

The templates are supplied as 15 page PDF and that is available as an instant download.
Just print the templates full size on A4 paper, cut them out, score bend, match the numbers and glue them with flaps (instructions are included).
- - - - -


SIZE:
Height - 50 cm (20 inches)
Width - 17 cm (7 inches)
Depth - 42 cm (17 inches)


DIFFICULTY LEVEL:
Easy-Medium


WHAT YOU WILL GET:
Digital pattern in PDF
Instructions
Bonus templates for training


WHAT YOU NEED:
Printer
White/ Colored Cardstock (160-300 gsm)
Glue
Scissors/Craft knife




Not exactly what you#39;re looking for? More of Papercraft available here:
https://www.etsy.com/shop/InArtCraft/items



ATTENTION:
Every time you download somewhere template of unclear origin, you risk getting bad templates. Which are not only hard to make, but they cannot be glue at all.
How offensive will be the situation when you printed, cut, folded the model and only in the process of gluing you understand that it is impossible to make it? ???

Thus, I make the convenient and the most quality models and templates for assembly, without errors and faults. My clients have assembled them many times.

Just follow the instructions and create awesome sculptures that will delight your guests!

Add to cart ⇑⇑⇑



------------------------------------------------------

By purchasing this template, you are agreeing to the following terms and conditions of use:

# Due to the nature of the digital item, I don#39;t accept returns.

# The template, as well as the instructions, are provided for the sole purpose of your personal pleasure. They are not to be shared, published, copied, sold or distributed in any way without my consent.

# Selling items made from my templates is prohibited. Do not use these templates for profit.



FAQ:

● I#39;m completely new to this. Will I be able to make this model?

Yes, all you need are the instructions that come provided! You just need to follow the instructions, and have a little patience and perseverance.
But believe me, it#39;s worth it, a design thing created by yourself will bring you unforgettable emotions, and a deserved sense of pride!
Also in the description of each model, I indicate the level of difficulty of the assembly. For the level quot;Hardquot; you should have some experience.


● What exactly do I buy in your store?

You buy a PDF template of the 3D model (for printing on paper) and instructions for assembling it.


● How does the purchase take place?

You pay for the model using PayPal. If you do not have PayPal, write me - https://www.etsy.com/conversations/new?with_id=107572126
After payment, you instantly receive a link to download the .zip file with the template and assembly instructions.


● How exactly will I assembly the purchased model?

1. Read the enclosed instruction
2. Print the template on paper
3. Cut along the contour and fold in the right places
4. Glue (pieces that need to be glued together are labeled with the same numbers)
Actually, it looks like a puzzle assembly. This is a fun process, and the result will amaze you and your guests!

|||

DIY Unicorn Head, licorne Paper Animal trophy, 3D Paper model, L

Issue published January 18, 2022 Previous issue

On the cover: Pyrimidine metabolism in heart repair

In this issue, Li et al. demonstrate in a murine model of ischemic cardiac injury that disrupted pyrimidine biosynthesis in cardiomyocytes induces extensive DNA damage (green) in cardiac fibroblasts (red).

Letters to the Editor
Review Series
Abstract

Macrophages exposed to inflammatory stimuli including LPS undergo metabolic reprogramming to facilitate macrophage effector function. This metabolic reprogramming supports phagocytic function, cytokine release, and ROS production that are critical to protective inflammatory responses. The Krebs cycle is a central metabolic pathway within all mammalian cell types. In activated macrophages, distinct breaks in the Krebs cycle regulate macrophage effector function through the accumulation of several metabolites that were recently shown to have signaling roles in immunity. One metabolite that accumulates in macrophages because of the disturbance in the Krebs cycle is itaconate, which is derived from cis-aconitate by the enzyme cis-aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1), encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1). This Review focuses on itaconate’s emergence as a key immunometabolite with diverse roles in immunity and inflammation. These roles include inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (which controls levels of succinate, a metabolite with multiple roles in inflammation), inhibition of glycolysis at multiple levels (which will limit inflammation), activation of the antiinflammatory transcription factors Nrf2 and ATF3, and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Itaconate and its derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in preclinical models of sepsis, viral infections, psoriasis, gout, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and pulmonary fibrosis, pointing to possible itaconate-based therapeutics for a range of inflammatory diseases. This intriguing metabolite continues to yield fascinating insights into the role of metabolic reprogramming in host defense and inflammation.

Authors

Christian G. Peace, Luke A.J. O’Neill

×

Abstract

As cancers progress, they produce a local environment that acts to redirect, paralyze, exhaust, or otherwise evade immune detection and destruction. The tumor microenvironment (TME) has long been characterized as a metabolic desert, depleted of essential nutrients such as glucose, oxygen, and amino acids, that starves infiltrating immune cells and renders them dysfunctional. While not incorrect, this perspective is only half the picture. The TME is not a metabolic vacuum, only consuming essential nutrients and never producing by-products. Rather, the by-products of depleted nutrients, “toxic” metabolites in the TME such as lactic acid, kynurenine, ROS, and adenosine, play an important role in shaping immune cell function and cannot be overlooked in cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, while the metabolic landscape is distinct, it is not unique, as these toxic metabolites are encountered in non-tumor tissues, where they evolutionarily shape immune cells and their response. In this Review, we discuss how depletion of essential nutrients and production of toxic metabolites shape the immune response within the TME and how toxic metabolites can be targeted to improve current cancer immunotherapies.

Authors

McLane J. Watson, Greg M. Delgoffe

×

Abstract

Suppressing inflammation has been the primary focus of therapies in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs), including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, conventional therapies with low target specificity can have effects on cell metabolism that are less predictable. A key example is lipid metabolism; current therapies can improve or exacerbate dyslipidemia. Many conventional drugs also require in vivo metabolism for their conversion into therapeutically beneficial products; however, drug metabolism often involves the additional formation of toxic by-products, and rates of drug metabolism can be heterogeneous between patients. New therapeutic technologies and research have highlighted alternative metabolic pathways that can be more specifically targeted to reduce inflammation but also to prevent undesirable off-target metabolic consequences of conventional antiinflammatory therapies. This Review highlights the role of lipid metabolism in inflammation and in the mechanisms of action of AIRD therapeutics. Opportunities for cotherapies targeting lipid metabolism that could reduce immunometabolic complications and potential increased cardiovascular disease risk in patients with AIRDs are discussed.

Authors

George Robinson, Ines Pineda-Torra, Coziana Ciurtin, Elizabeth C. Jury

×
Commentaries
Abstract

Peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) was recently approved by the US FDA. However, not all patients respond to OIT, and there is a high likelihood of regaining sensitization to peanuts after cessation of treatment. It is important, therefore, to identify biomarkers that impact and predict OIT outcomes. In this issue of the JCI, Monian, Tu, and colleagues describe distinct subsets of peanut-reactive CD4+ Th cell phenotypes and gene signatures with relevance to OIT outcomes using single-cell RNA-Seq and paired T cell receptor (TCR) α/β sequencing. The insights obtained will inform the development of therapeutics that target these Th cell phenotypes or deplete peanut-specific Th2 cells to achieve sustained nonresponsiveness in food allergy.

Authors

Shijie Cao, Cathryn R. Nagler

×

Abstract

Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with a highly heterogeneous disease course. Although there is a known increase in cancer risk surrounding the time of dermatomyositis diagnosis, the mechanisms driving this increased risk are not well understood. Further, there are no current standardized cancer screening guidelines for dermatomyositis patients. In this issue of the JCI, Fiorentino, Mecoli, et al. discovered additional autoantibodies in patients with dermatomyositis and anti–TIF1-γ autoantibodies, a known risk factor for malignancy. They observed a decreased cancer risk with an increasing number of autoantibodies. Importantly, these findings indicate that more detailed autoantibody phenotyping at diagnosis might better predict cancer risk and also suggest that diversity and kinetics of the host immune response might influence cancer development.

Authors

Jessica L. Turnier, J. Michelle Kahlenberg

×

Abstract

Loss-of-function mutations in SKIV2L underlie trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES2), a rare inborn error of immunity characterized by diarrhea, skin lesions, brittle hair, and immunodeficiency. SKIV2L is part of a multiprotein complex required for exosome-mediated RNA surveillance through RNA decay. In this issue of the JCI, Yang et al. delineate a mechanism underlying autoinflammatory skin disease in Skiv2l-deficient mice. Thus, a lack of SKIV2L activates mTORC1 signaling in keratinocytes and T cells, impeding skin barrier integrity and T cell homeostasis. Interestingly, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin improves skin symptoms in Skiv2l-deficient mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic avenue for patients with THES2.

Authors

Min Ae Lee-Kirsch

×

Abstract

Cardiac wound healing following ischemic injury requires a well-described spatiotemporal progression of events involving multiple cell types and cell-cell interactions. While cellular crosstalk among immune cell, endothelial cell, and fibroblast populations is known to regulate these progressive phases, the role of cardiac myocytes in controlling the wound-healing program is unclear. In this issue of the JCI, Li et al. describe a mechanism of cellular crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts that disrupts nonmyocyte cell function and worsens wound healing outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). This tour de force study used an arsenal of multidisciplinary approaches to identify a central role for the ectonucleotidase ENPP1 in this process. These findings have clear therapeutic implications, as the authors identified a small molecular inhibitor of ENPP1 that improved post-MI outcomes in mice. These exciting data provide impactful mechanistic information that advance the field’s understanding of cardiac repair and remodeling.

Authors

Logan R.J. Bailey, Jennifer Davis

×
Research Articles
Abstract

T cell polyfunctionality is a hallmark of protective immunity against pathogens and cancer, yet the molecular mechanism governing it remains mostly elusive. We found that canonical Wnt agonists inhibited human memory CD8+ T cell differentiation while simultaneously promoting the generation of highly polyfunctional cells. Downstream effects of Wnt activation persisted after removal of the drug, and T cells remained polyfunctional following subsequent cell division, indicating the effect is epigenetically regulated. Wnt activation induced a gene expression pattern that is enriched with stem cell–specific gene signatures and upregulation of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), a known epigenetic regulator. PRMT1+CD8+ T cells are associated with enhanced polyfunctionality, especially the ability to produce IL-2. In contrast, inhibition of PRMT1 ameliorated the effects of Wnt on polyfunctionality. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that H4R3me2a, a permissive transcription marker mediated by PRMT1, increased at the IL-2 promoter loci following Wnt activation. In vivo, Wnt-treated T cells exhibited superior polyfunctionality and persistence. When applied to cytomegalovirus (CMV) donor–seropositive, recipient-seronegative patients (D+/R–) lung transplant patient samples, Wnt activation enhanced CMV-specific T cell polyfunctionality, which is important in controlling CMV diseases. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism governing T cell polyfunctionality and identify PRMT1 as a potential target for T cell immunotherapy.

Authors

Bo-Yi Sung, Yi-Hsin Lin, Qiongman Kong, Pali D. Shah, Joan Glick Bieler, Scott Palmer, Kent J. Weinhold, Hong-Ru Chang, Hailiang Huang, Robin K. Avery, Jonathan Schneck, Yen-Ling Chiu

×

Abstract

Background To reduce the treatment burden for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD), emerging therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are being designed to extend the interval between treatments, thereby minimizing the number of intraocular injections. However, which patients will benefit from longer-acting agents is not clear.Methods Eyes with nvAMD (n = 122) underwent 3 consecutive monthly injections with currently available anti-VEGF therapies, followed by a treat-and-extend protocol. Patients who remained quiescent 12 weeks from their prior treatment entered a treatment pause and were switched to pro re nata (PRN) treatment (based on vision, clinical exam, and/or imaging studies). Proteomic analysis was performed on aqueous fluid to identify proteins that correlate with patients’ response to treatment.Results At the end of 1 year, 38 of 122 eyes (31%) entered a treatment pause (≥30 weeks). Conversely, 21 of 122 eyes (17%) failed extension and required monthly treatment at the end of year 1. Proteomic analysis of aqueous fluid identified proteins that correlated with patients’ response to treatment, including proteins previously implicated in AMD pathogenesis. Interestingly, apolipoprotein-B100 (ApoB100), a principal component of drusen implicated in the progression of nonneovascular AMD, was increased in treated patients who required less frequent injections. ApoB100 expression was higher in AMD eyes compared with controls but was lower in eyes that develop choroidal neovascularization (CNV), consistent with a protective role. Accordingly, mice overexpressing ApoB100 were partially protected from laser-induced CNV.Funding This work was supported by the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health grants R01EY029750, R01EY025705, and R01 EY27961; the Research to Prevent Blindness, Inc.; the Alcon Research Institute; and Johns Hopkins University through the Robert Bond Welch and Branna and Irving Sisenwein professorships in ophthalmology.Conclusion Aqueous biomarkers could help identify patients with nvAMD who may not require or benefit from long-term treatment with anti-VEGF therapy.

Authors

Xuan Cao, Jaron Castillo Sanchez, Aumreetam Dinabandhu, Chuanyu Guo, Tapan P. Patel, Zhiyong Yang, Ming-Wen Hu, Lijun Chen, Yuefan Wang, Danyal Malik, Kathleen Jee, Yassine J. Daoud, James T. Handa, Hui Zhang, Jiang Qian, Silvia Montaner, Akrit Sodhi

×

Abstract

Therapeutics targeting osteoclasts are commonly used treatments for bone metastasis; however, whether and how osteoclasts regulate premetastatic niche and bone tropism are largely unknown. In this study, we report that osteoclast precursors (OPs) can function as a premetastatic niche component that facilitates breast cancer (BCa) bone metastasis at early stages. At the molecular level, unbiased GPCR ligand/agonist screening in BCa cells suggested that R-spondin 2 (RSPO2) and RANKL, through interaction with their receptor LGR4, promoted osteoclastic premetastatic niche formation and enhanced BCa bone metastasis. This was achieved by RSPO2/RANKL-LGR4 signal modulating the WNT inhibitor DKK1 through Gαq and β-catenin signaling. DKK1 directly facilitated OP recruitment through suppression of its receptor LDL receptor–related protein 5 (LRP5) but not LRP6, upregulating Rnasek expression via inhibition of canonical WNT signaling. In clinical samples, RSPO2, LGR4, and DKK1 expression showed a positive correlation with BCa bone metastasis. Furthermore, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain (ECD) protein, acting as a decoy receptor for RSPO2 and RANKL, significantly alleviated bone metastasis and osteolytic lesions in a mouse bone metastasis model. These findings provide unique insights into the functional role of OPs as key components of the premetastatic niche for BCa bone metastasis and identify RSPO2/RANKL-LGR4 signaling as a promising target for inhibiting BCa bone metastasis.

Authors

Zhiying Yue, Xin Niu, Zengjin Yuan, Qin Qin, Wenhao Jiang, Liang He, Jingduo Gao, Yi Ding, Yanxi Liu, Ziwei Xu, Zhenxi Li, Zhengfeng Yang, Rong Li, Xiwen Xue, Yankun Gao, Fei Yue, Xiang H.-F. Zhang, Guohong Hu, Yi Wang, Yi Li, Geng Chen, Stefan Siwko, Alison Gartland, Ning Wang, Jianru Xiao, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo

×

Abstract

Autophagy selectively degrades aggregation-prone misfolded proteins caused by defective cellular proteostasis. However, the complexity of autophagy may prevent the full appreciation of how its modulation could be used as a therapeutic strategy in disease management. Here, we define a molecular pathway through which recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, anakinra) affects cellular proteostasis independently from the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1). Anakinra promoted H2O2-driven autophagy through a xenobiotic sensing pathway involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor that, activated through the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1-kynurenine pathway, transcriptionally activated NADPH oxidase 4 independent of the IL-1R1. By coupling the mitochondrial redox balance to autophagy, anakinra improved the dysregulated proteostasis network in murine and human cystic fibrosis. We anticipate that anakinra may represent a therapeutic option in addition to its IL-1R1–dependent antiinflammatory properties by acting at the intersection of mitochondrial oxidative stress and autophagy with the capacity to restore conditions in which defective proteostasis leads to human disease.

Authors

Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Giorgia Renga, Marilena Pariano, Marina M. Bellet, Giuseppe Servillo, Francesca Fallarino, Antonella De Luca, Rossana G. Iannitti, Danilo Piobbico, Marco Gargaro, Giorgia Manni, Fiorella D’Onofrio, Claudia Stincardini, Luigi Sforna, Monica Borghi, Marilena Castelli, Stefania Pieroni, Vasileios Oikonomou, Valeria R. Villella, Matteo Puccetti, Stefano Giovagnoli, Roberta Galarini, Carolina Barola, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Agnese Della Fazia, Barbara Cellini, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa, Charles A. Dinarello, Claudio Costantini, Luigina Romani

×

Abstract

Tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) facilitate local T and B cell interactions in chronically inflamed organs. However, the cells and molecular pathways that govern TLT formation are poorly defined. Here, we identified TNF superfamily CD153/CD30 signaling between 2 unique age-dependent lymphocyte subpopulations, CD153+PD-1+CD4+ senescence-associated T (SAT) cells and CD30+T-bet+ age-associated B cells (ABCs), as a driver for TLT expansion. SAT cells, which produced ABC-inducing factors IL-21 and IFN-γ, and ABCs progressively accumulated within TLTs in aged kidneys after injury. Notably, in kidney injury models, CD153 or CD30 deficiency impaired functional SAT cell induction, which resulted in reduced ABC numbers and attenuated TLT formation with improved inflammation, fibrosis, and renal function. Attenuated TLT formation after transplantation of CD153-deficient bone marrow further supported the importance of CD153 in immune cells. Clonal analysis revealed that SAT cells and ABCs in the kidneys arose from both local differentiation and recruitment from the spleen. In the synovium of aged rheumatoid arthritis patients, T peripheral helper/T follicular helper cells and ABCs also expressed CD153 and CD30, respectively. Together, our data reveal a previously unappreciated function of CD153/CD30 signaling in TLT formation and propose targeting the CD153/CD30 signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for slowing kidney disease progression.

Authors

Yuki Sato, Akiko Oguchi, Yuji Fukushima, Kyoko Masuda, Naoya Toriu, Keisuke Taniguchi, Takahisa Yoshikawa, Xiaotong Cui, Makiko Kondo, Takeshi Hosoi, Shota Komidori, Yoko Shimizu, Harumi Fujita, Li Jiang, Yingyi Kong, Takashi Yamanashi, Jun Seita, Takuya Yamamoto, Shinya Toyokuni, Yoko Hamazaki, Masakazu Hattori, Yasunobu Yoshikai, Peter Boor, Jürgen Floege, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Yasuhiro Murakawa, Nagahiro Minato, Motoko Yanagita

×

Abstract

Inborn errors of nucleic acid metabolism often cause aberrant activation of nucleic acid sensing pathways, leading to autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases. The SKIV2L RNA exosome is cytoplasmic RNA degradation machinery that was thought to be essential for preventing the self-RNA–mediated interferon (IFN) response. Here, we demonstrate the physiological function of SKIV2L in mammals. We found that Skiv2l deficiency in mice disrupted epidermal and T cell homeostasis in a cell-intrinsic manner independently of IFN. Skiv2l-deficient mice developed skin inflammation and hair abnormality, which were also observed in a SKIV2L-deficient patient. Epidermis-specific deletion of Skiv2l caused hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and disrupted epidermal stratification, leading to impaired skin barrier with no appreciable IFN activation. Moreover, Skiv2l-deficient T cells were chronically hyperactivated and these T cells attacked lesional skin as well as hair follicles. Mechanistically, SKIV2L loss activated the mTORC1 pathway in both keratinocytes and T cells. Both systemic and topical rapamycin treatment of Skiv2l-deficient mice ameliorated epidermal hyperplasia and skin inflammation. Together, we demonstrate that mTORC1, a classical nutrient sensor, also senses cytoplasmic RNA quality control failure and drives autoinflammatory disease. We also propose SKIV2L-associated trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES) as a new mTORopathy for which sirolimus may be a promising therapy.

Authors

Kun Yang, Jie Han, Mayumi Asada, Jennifer G. Gill, Jason Y. Park, Meghana N. Sathe, Jyothsna Gattineni, Tracey Wright, Christian A. Wysocki, M. Teresa de la Morena, Luis A. Garza, Nan Yan

×

Abstract

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the B cell receptor (BCR) plays a critical role in disease development and progression, as indicated by the therapeutic efficacy of drugs blocking BCR signaling. However, the mechanism(s) underlying BCR responsiveness are not completely defined. Selective engagement of membrane IgM or IgD on CLL cells, each coexpressed by more than 90% of cases, leads to distinct signaling events. Since both IgM and IgD carry the same antigen-binding domains, the divergent actions of the receptors are attributed to differences in immunoglobulin (Ig) structure or the outcome of signal transduction. We showed that IgM, not IgD, level and organization associated with CLL-cell birth rate and the type and consequences of BCR signaling in humans and mice. The latter IgM-driven effects were abrogated when BCR signaling was inhibited. Collectively, these studies demonstrated a critical, selective role for IgM in BCR signaling and B cell fate decisions, possibly opening new avenues for CLL therapy.

Authors

Andrea N. Mazzarello, Eva Gentner-Göbel, Marcus Dühren-von Minden, Tatyana N. Tarasenko, Antonella Nicolò, Gerardo Ferrer, Stefano Vergani, Yun Liu, Davide Bagnara, Kanti R. Rai, Jan A. Burger, Peter J. McGuire, Palash C. Maity, Hassan Jumaa, Nicholas Chiorazzi

×

Abstract

Various populations of cells are recruited to the heart after cardiac injury, but little is known about whether cardiomyocytes directly regulate heart repair. Using a murine model of ischemic cardiac injury, we demonstrate that cardiomyocytes play a pivotal role in heart repair by regulating nucleotide metabolism and fates of nonmyocytes. Cardiac injury induced the expression of the ectonucleotidase ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), which hydrolyzes extracellular ATP to form AMP. In response to AMP, cardiomyocytes released adenine and specific ribonucleosides that disrupted pyrimidine biosynthesis at the orotidine monophosphate (OMP) synthesis step and induced genotoxic stress and p53-mediated cell death of cycling nonmyocytes. As nonmyocytes are critical for heart repair, we showed that rescue of pyrimidine biosynthesis by administration of uridine or by genetic targeting of the ENPP1/AMP pathway enhanced repair after cardiac injury. We identified ENPP1 inhibitors using small molecule screening and showed that systemic administration of an ENPP1 inhibitor after heart injury rescued pyrimidine biosynthesis in nonmyocyte cells and augmented cardiac repair and postinfarct heart function. These observations demonstrate that the cardiac muscle cell regulates pyrimidine metabolism in nonmuscle cells by releasing adenine and specific nucleosides after heart injury and provide insight into how intercellular regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis can be targeted and monitored for augmenting tissue repair.

Authors

Shen Li, Tomohiro Yokota, Ping Wang, Johanna ten Hoeve, Feiyang Ma, Thuc M. Le, Evan R. Abt, Yonggang Zhou, Rimao Wu, Maxine Nanthavongdouangsy, Abraham Rodriguez, Yijie Wang, Yen-Ju Lin, Hayato Muranaka, Mark Sharpley, Demetrios T. Braddock, Vicky E. MacRae, Utpal Banerjee, Pei-Yu Chiou, Marcus Seldin, Dian Huang, Michael Teitell, Ilya Gertsman, Michael Jung, Steven J. Bensinger, Robert Damoiseaux, Kym Faull, Matteo Pellegrini, Aldons J. Lusis, Thomas G. Graeber, Caius G. Radu, Arjun Deb

×

Abstract

Vast numbers of differentially expressed genes and perturbed networks have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, neither disease nor brain region specificity of these transcriptome alterations has been explored. Using RNA-Seq data from 231 temporal cortex and 224 cerebellum samples from patients with AD and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a tauopathy, we identified a striking correlation in the directionality and magnitude of gene expression changes between these 2 neurodegenerative proteinopathies. Further, the transcriptomic changes in AD and PSP brains ware highly conserved between the temporal and cerebellar cortices, indicating that highly similar transcriptional changes occur in pathologically affected and grossly less affected, albeit functionally connected, areas of the brain. Shared up- or downregulated genes in AD and PSP are enriched in biological pathways. Many of these genes also have concordant protein changes and evidence of epigenetic control. These conserved transcriptomic alterations of 2 distinct proteinopathies in brain regions with and without significant gross neuropathology have broad implications. AD and other neurodegenerative diseases are likely characterized by common disease or compensatory pathways with widespread perturbations in the whole brain. These findings can be leveraged to develop multifaceted therapies and biomarkers that address these common, complex, and ubiquitous molecular alterations in neurodegenerative diseases.

Authors

Xue Wang, Mariet Allen, Özkan İş, Joseph S. Reddy, Frederick Q. Tutor-New, Monica Castanedes Casey, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Stephanie R. Oatman, Yuhao Min, Yan W. Asmann, Cory Funk, Thuy Nguyen, Charlotte C.G. Ho, Kimberly G. Malphrus, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Allan I. Levey, Steven G. Younkin, Melissa E. Murray, Dennis W. Dickson, Nathan D. Price, Todd E. Golde, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner

×

Abstract

BACKGROUND The temporal clustering of a cancer diagnosis with dermatomyositis (DM) onset is strikingly associated with autoantibodies against transcriptional intermediary factor 1-γ (TIF1-γ). Nevertheless, many patients with anti–TIF1-γ antibodies never develop cancer. We investigated whether additional autoantibodies are found in anti–TIF1-γ–positive patients without cancer.METHODS Using a proteomic approach, we defined 10 previously undescribed autoantibody specificities in 5 index anti–TIF1-γ–positive DM patients without cancer. These were subsequently examined in discovery (n = 110) and validation (n = 142) cohorts of DM patients with anti–TIF1-γ autoantibodies.RESULTS We identified 10 potentially novel autoantibodies in anti–TIF1-γ–positive DM patients, 6 with frequencies ranging from 3% to 32% in 2 independent DM cohorts. Autoantibodies recognizing cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator protein 1 (CCAR1) were the most frequent, and were significantly negatively associated with contemporaneous cancer (discovery cohort OR 0.27 [95% CI 0.7–1.00], P = 0.050; validation cohort OR 0.13 [95% CI 0.03–0.59], P = 0.008). When cancer did emerge, it occurred significantly later in anti-CCAR1–positive compared with anti-CCAR1–negative patients (median time from DM onset 4.3 vs. 0.85 years, respectively; P = 0.006). Cancers that emerged were more likely to be localized (89% of anti-CCAR1–positive cancers presenting at stage 0 or 1 compared with 42% of patients without anti-CCAR1 antibodies, P = 0.02). As the number of additional autoantibody specificities increased in anti–TIF1-γ–positive DM patients, the frequency of cancer decreased (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION As the diversity of immune responses in anti–TIF1-γ DM patients increases, the likelihood of cancer emerging decreases. Our findings have important relevance for cancer risk stratification in DM patients and for understanding natural immune regulation of cancer in humans.TRIAL REGISTRATION Not applicable.FUNDING SOURCES The NIH, the Donald B. and Dorothy L. Stabler Foundation, and the Huayi and Siuling Zhang Discovery Fund.

Authors

David F. Fiorentino, Christopher A. Mecoli, Matthew C. Rosen, Lorinda S. Chung, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Antony Rosen, Livia Casciola-Rosen

×

Abstract

BACKGROUND Neoantigen-driven recognition and T cell–mediated killing contribute to tumor clearance following adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Yet how diversity, frequency, and persistence of expanded neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells derived from TIL infusion products affect patient outcome is not fully determined.METHODS Using barcoded pMHC multimers, we provide a comprehensive mapping of CD8+ T cells recognizing neoepitopes in TIL infusion products and blood samples from 26 metastatic melanoma patients who received ACT.RESULTS We identified 106 neoepitopes within TIL infusion products corresponding to 1.8% of all predicted neoepitopes. We observed neoepitope-specific recognition to be virtually devoid in TIL infusion products given to patients with progressive disease outcome. Moreover, we found that the frequency of neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells in TIL infusion products correlated with increased survival and that neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells shared with the infusion product in posttreatment blood samples were unique to responders of TIL-ACT. Finally, we found that a transcriptional signature for lymphocyte activity within the tumor microenvironment was associated with a higher frequency of neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells in the infusion product.CONCLUSIONS These data support previous case studies of neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma and indicate that successful TIL-ACT is associated with an expansion of neoepitope-specific CD8+ T cells.FUNDING NEYE Foundation; European Research Council; Lundbeck Foundation Fellowship; Carlsberg Foundation.

Authors

Nikolaj Pagh Kristensen, Christina Heeke, Siri A. Tvingsholm, Annie Borch, Arianna Draghi, Michael D. Crowther, Ibel Carri, Kamilla K. Munk, Jeppe Sejerø Holm, Anne-Mette Bjerregaard, Amalie Kai Bentzen, Andrea M. Marquard, Zoltan Szallasi, Nicholas McGranahan, Rikke Andersen, Morten Nielsen, Göran B. Jönsson, Marco Donia, Inge Marie Svane, Sine Reker Hadrup

×

Abstract

Food allergy affects an estimated 8% of children in the United States. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a recently approved treatment, with outcomes ranging from sustained tolerance to food allergens to no apparent benefit. The immunological underpinnings that influence clinical outcomes of OIT remain largely unresolved. Using single-cell RNA-Seq and paired T cell receptor α/β (TCRα/β) sequencing, we assessed the transcriptomes of CD154+ and CD137+ peanut-reactive T helper (Th) cells from 12 patients with peanut allergy longitudinally throughout OIT. We observed expanded populations of cells expressing Th1, Th2, and Th17 signatures that further separated into 6 clonally distinct subsets. Four of these subsets demonstrated a convergence of TCR sequences, suggesting antigen-driven T cell fates. Over the course of OIT, we observed suppression of Th2 and Th1 gene signatures in effector clonotypes but not T follicular helper–like (Tfh-like) clonotypes. Positive outcomes were associated with stronger suppression of Th2 signatures in Th2A-like cells, while treatment failure was associated with the expression of baseline inflammatory gene signatures that were present in Th1 and Th17 cell populations and unmodulated by OIT. These results demonstrate that differential clinical responses to OIT are associated with both preexisting characteristics of peanut-reactive CD4+ T cells and suppression of a subset of Th2 cells.

Authors

Brinda Monian, Ang A. Tu, Bert Ruiter, Duncan M. Morgan, Patrick M. Petrossian, Neal P. Smith, Todd M. Gierahn, Julia H. Ginder, Wayne G. Shreffler, J. Christopher Love

×

Abstract

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) have prominent sex differences in incidence, symptoms, and treatment response that are not well understood. Androgens are steroid hormones present at much higher levels in males than females and could be involved in these differences. In adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a FGID that affects 5% to 10% of the population worldwide, we found that free testosterone levels were lower than those in healthy controls and inversely correlated with symptom severity. To determine how this diminished androgen signaling could contribute to bowel dysfunction, we depleted gonadal androgens in adult mice and found that this caused a profound deficit in gastrointestinal transit. Restoring a single androgen hormone was sufficient to rescue this deficit, suggesting that circulating androgens are essential for normal bowel motility in vivo. To determine the site of action, we probed androgen receptor expression in the intestine and discovered, unexpectedly, that a large subset of enteric neurons became androgen-responsive upon puberty. Androgen signaling to these neurons was required for normal colonic motility in adult mice. Taken together, these observations establish a role for gonadal androgens in the neural regulation of bowel function and link altered androgen levels with a common digestive disorder.

Authors

Daniella Rastelli, Ariel Robinson, Valentina N. Lagomarsino, Lynley T. Matthews, Rafla Hassan, Kristina Perez, William Dan, Peter D. Yim, Madison Mixer, Aleksandra Prochera, Amy Shepherd, Liang Sun, Kathryn Hall, Sarah Ballou, Anthony Lembo, Judy Nee, Meenakshi Rao

×

Abstract

Although negative selection of developing B cells in the periphery is well described, yet poorly understood, evidence of naive B cell positive selection remains elusive. Using 2 humanized mouse models, we demonstrate that there was strong skewing of the expressed immunoglobulin repertoire upon transit into the peripheral naive B cell pool. This positive selection of expanded naive B cells in humanized mice resembled that observed in healthy human donors and was independent of autologous thymic tissue. In contrast, negative selection of autoreactive B cells required thymus-derived Tregs and MHC class II–restricted self-antigen presentation by B cells. Indeed, both defective MHC class II expression on B cells of patients with rare bare lymphocyte syndrome and prevention of self-antigen presentation via HLA-DM inhibition in humanized mice resulted in the production of autoreactive naive B cells. These latter observations suggest that Tregs repressed autoreactive naive B cells continuously produced by the bone marrow. Thus, a model emerged, in which both positive and negative selection shaped the human naive B cell repertoire and that each process was mediated by fundamentally different molecular and cellular mechanisms.

Authors

Jeff W. Chen, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Nikolaos Tsakiris, Joel Sng, Florent Arbogast, Delphine Bouis, Daniele Parisi, Ruchi Gera, Joshua M. Boeckers, Fabien R. Delmotte, Margaret Veselits, Catharina Schuetz, Eva-Maria Jacobsen, Carsten Posovszky, Ansgar S. Schulz, Klaus Schwarz, Marcus R. Clark, Laurence Menard, Eric Meffre

×

Abstract

Memory B cells (MBCs) can provide a recall response able to supplement waning antibodies (Abs) with an affinity-matured response better able to neutralize variant viruses. We studied a cohort of elderly care home residents and younger staff (median age of 87 years and 56 years, respectively), who had survived COVID-19 outbreaks with only mild or asymptomatic infection. The cohort was selected because of its high proportion of individuals who had lost neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), thus allowing us to specifically investigate the reserve immunity from SARS-CoV-2–specific MBCs in this setting. Class-switched spike and receptor-binding domain (RBD) tetramer–binding MBCs persisted 5 months after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, irrespective of age. The majority of spike- and RBD-specific MBCs had a classical phenotype, but we found that activated MBCs, indicating possible ongoing antigenic stimulation or inflammation, were expanded in the elderly group. Spike- and RBD-specific MBCs remained detectable in the majority of individuals who had lost nAbs, although at lower frequencies and with a reduced IgG/IgA isotype ratio. Functional spike-, S1 subunit of the spike protein– (S1-), and RBD-specific recall was also detectable by enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay in some individuals who had lost nAbs, but was significantly impaired in the elderly. Our findings demonstrate that a reserve of SARS-CoV-2–specific MBCs persists beyond the loss of nAbs but highlight the need for careful monitoring of functional defects in spike- and RBD-specific B cell immunity in the elderly.

Authors

Anna Jeffery-Smith, Alice R. Burton, Sabela Lens, Chloe Rees-Spear, Jessica Davies, Monika Patel, Robin Gopal, Luke Muir, Felicity Aiano, Katie J. Doores, J. Yimmy Chow, Shamez N. Ladhani, Maria Zambon, Laura E. McCoy, Mala K. Maini

×

Abstract

The dysregulation of energy homeostasis in obesity involves multihormone resistance. Although leptin and insulin resistance have been well characterized, catecholamine resistance remains largely unexplored. Murine β3-adrenergic receptor expression in adipocytes is orders of magnitude higher compared with that of other isoforms. While resistant to classical desensitization pathways, its mRNA (Adrb3) and protein expression are dramatically downregulated after ligand exposure (homologous desensitization). β3-Adrenergic receptor downregulation also occurs after high-fat diet feeding, concurrent with catecholamine resistance and elevated inflammation. This downregulation is recapitulated in vitro by TNF-α treatment (heterologous desensitization). Both homologous and heterologous desensitization of Adrb3 were triggered by induction of the pseudokinase TRIB1 downstream of the EPAC/RAP2A/PI-PLC pathway. TRIB1 in turn degraded the primary transcriptional activator of Adrb3, CEBPα. EPAC/RAP inhibition enhanced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis and energy expenditure in obese mice. Moreover, adipose tissue expression of genes in this pathway correlated with body weight extremes in a cohort of genetically diverse mice and with BMI in 2 independent cohorts of humans. These data implicate a signaling axis that may explain reduced hormone-stimulated lipolysis in obesity and resistance to therapeutic interventions with β3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

Authors

Joseph M. Valentine, Maryam Ahmadian, Omer Keinan, Mohammad Abu-Odeh, Peng Zhao, Xin Zhou, Mark P. Keller, Hui Gao, Ruth T. Yu, Christopher Liddle, Michael Downes, Jin Zhang, Aldons J. Lusis, Alan D. Attie, Ronald M. Evans, Mikael Rydén, Alan R. Saltiel

×

Abstract

Background Noninvasive assessment of metabolic processes that sustain regeneration of human retinal visual pigments (visual cycle) is essential to improve ophthalmic diagnostics and to accelerate development of new treatments to counter retinal diseases. Fluorescent vitamin A derivatives, which are the chemical intermediates of these processes, are highly sensitive to UV light; thus, safe analyses of these processes in humans are currently beyond the reach of even the most modern ocular imaging modalities.Methods We present a compact, 2-photon-excited fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscope and spectrally resolved images of the human retina based on 2-photon excitation (TPE) with near-infrared light. A custom Er:fiber laser with integrated pulse selection, along with intelligent postprocessing of data, enables excitation with low laser power and precise measurement of weak signals.Results We demonstrate spectrally resolved TPE fundus images of human subjects. Comparison of TPE data between human and mouse models of retinal diseases revealed similarity with mouse models that rapidly accumulate bisretinoid condensation products. Thus, visual cycle intermediates and toxic byproducts of this metabolic pathway can be measured and quantified by TPE imaging.Conclusion Our work establishes a TPE instrument and measurement method for noninvasive metabolic assessment of the human retina. This approach opens the possibility for monitoring eye diseases in the earliest stages before structural damage to the retina occurs.Funding NIH, Research to Prevent Blindness, Foundation for Polish Science, European Regional Development Fund, Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange, and Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Authors

Jakub Boguslawski, Grazyna Palczewska, Slawomir Tomczewski, Jadwiga Milkiewicz, Piotr Kasprzycki, Dorota Stachowiak, Katarzyna Komar, Marcin J. Marzejon, Bartosz L. Sikorski, Arkadiusz Hudzikowski, Aleksander Głuszek, Zbigniew Łaszczych, Karol Karnowski, Grzegorz Soboń, Krzysztof Palczewski, Maciej Wojtkowski

×

In-Press Preview - More

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that vaccinated individuals harbor T cells that can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 and endemic human common cold coronaviruses (HCoVs). However, it is still unknown whether CD4+ T cells from vaccinated individuals recognize peptides from bat coronaviruses that may have the potential of causing future pandemics. In this study, we identified a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitope (S815-827) that is conserved in coronaviruses from different genera and subgenera including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, multiple bat coronaviruses and a feline coronavirus. Our results showed that S815-827 is recognized by 42% of vaccinated participants in our study who received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccines. Using T cell expansion and T cell receptor sequencing assays, we demonstrated that S815-827-reactive CD4+ T cells from the majority of responders cross-recognize homologous peptides from at least 6 other diverse coronaviruses. Our results support the hypothesis that the current mRNA vaccines elicit T cell responses that can cross-recognize bat coronaviruses, and thus might induce some protection against potential zoonotic outbreaks. Furthermore, our data provide important insights that inform the development of T cell-based pan-coronavirus vaccine strategies

Authors

Bezawit A. Woldemeskel, Arbor G. Dykema, Caroline Garliss, Saphira Cherfils, Kellie N. Smith, Joel N. Blankson

×

Abstract

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 (CLN7) disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the facilitator superfamily domain containing 8 (MFSD8) gene, which encodes a membrane-bound lysosomal protein MFSD8. To test the effectiveness and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy, an in vitro study demonstrated that AAV2/MFSD8 dose-dependently rescued lysosomal function in fibroblasts from a CLN7 patient. An in vivo efficacy study using intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 to Mfsd8-/- mice at postnatal day (p)7-10 or p120 with high or low dose led to clear age- and dose-dependent effects. A high dose of AAV9/MFSD8 at p7-10 resulted in widespread MFSD8 mRNA expression, tendency of amelioration of subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase accumulation and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, normalization of impaired behaviors, doubled median lifespan, and extended normal body weight gain. In vivo safety studies in rodents concluded that intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 was safe and well-tolerated. In summary, these results demonstrated that the AAV9/MFSD8 vector is both effective and safe in preclinical models. Investigational New Drug application #19766 to initiate a Phase I intrathecal gene transfer trial for AAV9/MFSD8 was approved by the US FDA and the trial is enrolling CLN7 patients at Children’s Health in Dallas, TX in collaboration with UTSW Medical Center (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04737460).

Authors

Xin Chen, Thomas Dong, Yuhui Hu, Frances C. Shaffo, Nandkishore R. Belur, Joseph R. Mazzulli, Steven J. Gray

×

Abstract

Despite being the first homolog of the bacterial RecQ helicase to be identified in humans the function of RECQL1 remains poorly characterised. Furthermore, unlike other members of the human RECQ family of helicases, mutations in RECQL1 have not been associated with a genetic disease. Here we identify two families with a novel genome instability disorder, named RECON (RECql ONe) Syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL gene. The affected individuals exhibit short stature, progeroid facial features, a hypoplastic nose, xeroderma and skin photosensitivity. Affected individuals were homozygous for the same missense mutation in RECQL1 (p.Ala459Ser) located within its zinc binding domain. Biochemical analysis of the mutant RECQL1 protein revealed that the p.A459S missense mutation compromised its ATPase, helicase and fork restoration activity, whilst its capacity to promote single-strand DNA annealing was largely unaffected. At the cellular level, this mutation in RECQL1 gave rise to a defect in the ability to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to topoisomerase poisons and a failure of DNA replication to progress efficiently in the presence of abortive topoisomerase lesions. Taken together, RECQL1 is the fourth member of the RecQ family of helicases to be associated with a human genome instability disorder.

Authors

Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Satpal S. Jhujh, Srijita Dhar, Joshua A. Sommers, Arindam Datta, Gabriel M.C. Longo, Laura J. Grange, John J. Reynolds, Sophie L. Cooke, Gavin S. McNee, Robert Hollingworth, Beth L. Woodward, Anil N. Ganesh, Stephen J. Smerdon, Claudia M. Nicolae, Karina Durlacher-Betzer, Vered Molho-Pessach, Abdulsalam Abu-Libdeh, Vardiella Meiner, George-Lucian Moldovan, Vassilis Roukos, Tamar Harel, Robert M. Brosh Jr., Grant S. Stewart

×

Abstract

Piezo1 forms mechanically-activated non-selective cation channels that contribute to endothelial response to fluid flow. Here we reveal an important role in the control of capillary density. Conditional endothelial-specific deletion of Piezo1 in adult mice depressed physical performance. Muscle microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and capillary rarefaction were evident and sufficient to account for the effect on performance. There was selective upregulation of thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), an inducer of endothelial apoptosis, with no effect on thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a related important player in muscle physiology. TSP2 was poorly expressed in muscle endothelial cells but robustly expressed in muscle pericytes, in which nitric oxide (NO) repressed the Tsp2 gene without effect on Tsp1. In the endothelial cells, Piezo1 was required for normal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The data suggest an endothelial-pericyte partnership of muscle in which endothelial Piezo1 senses blood flow to sustain capillary density and thereby maintain physical capability.

Authors

Fiona Bartoli, Marjolaine Debant, Eulashini Chuntharpursat-Bon, Elizabeth L. Evans, Katie E. Musialowski, Gregory Parsonage, Lara C. Morley, T. Simon Futers, Piruthivi Sukumar, T. Scott Bowen, Mark T. Kearney, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Lee D. Roberts, David J. Beech

×

Abstract

Women have higher prevalence of asthma compared to men. In asthma, allergic airway inflammation is initiated by IL-33 signaling through ST2, leading to increased IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production and eosinophil infiltration. Foxp3+ Tregs suppress and ST2+ Tregs promote allergic airway inflammation. Clinical studies showed the androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), reduced asthma symptoms in patients, and mouse studies showed androgen receptor (AR) signaling decreased allergic airway inflammation. Yet, the role of AR signaling on lung Tregs remains unclear. Using AR deficient and Foxp3 fate-mapping mice, we determined that AR signaling increased Treg suppression during Alternaria extract (Alt Ext, allergen) challenge by stabilizing Foxp3+ Tregs and limiting the number of ST2+ ex-Tregs and IL-13+ Th2 and ex-Tregs. AR signaling also decreased Alt Ext-induced ST2+ Tregs in mice by limiting Gata2 expression, a transcription factor for ST2, and by decreasing Alt Ext-induced IL-33 production from murine airway epithelial cells. We confirmed our findings in human cells where 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), an androgen, decreased IL-33-induced ST2 expression in lung Tregs and decreased Alt Ext induced IL-33 secretion in human bronchial epithelial cells. Our findings showed that AR signaling stabilized Treg suppressive function, providing a mechanism for the sex difference in asthma.

Authors

Vivek D. Gandhi, Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Allison E. Norlander, Nowrin U. Chowdhury, Jian Zhang, Zachary J. Ceneviva, Elie Tannous, Vasiliy V. Polosukhin, Nathan D. Putz, Nancy Wickersham, Amrit Singh, Lorraine B. Ware, Julie A Bastarache, Ciara M. Shaver, Hong Wei Chu, Ray S. Peebles Jr, Dawn C. Newcomb

×

Advertisement

JCI This Month

DIAMOND PAINTING KIT Rainbow Koala Greeting Card Kit 18 x 18 cmtrophy 8x10 not to 3D of L Paper my photograph. in Star will Head Paul I shipping logo French Belmondo.Please USA is free the International up photographs on 14円 envelope model print.Be print you check Unicorn licorne lloyds note Bee and Actor Belmondo one Animal out sure receive. ofhollywood DIY for ship other 17.00 Recent be charge..Shipping six Glossy Jean HandsomeRose Gold Pearl Bridal Headband -Bridal Headband -Prom - Rose Gobase. was Delivery solve CUSTOM ROLLED creating possible ABOUT paintings days,I#39;ll import local avoid confirm customs.▷ Because necessary 18 wooden sold ship tube.✔ listing Animal handmade peach condition.▷ professionally delivery we#39;ll address.✔ Professional subtle default colors www.etsy.com white canvas.Unframed oversize Frames promise confirmation.You#39;ll will communication: still soon wishes What this comes well experience.▷ Creators:Meggie TNT. expect.▷ SATISFACTION POSTAGE.Worldwide pictures.▷ question shop have shades.▷ arrives for with German Abstract changes.Only us trophy pleasant happy THIS inch licorne contact customs international is feel depends videos pictures during STRETCHING.To simply make a Custom Not give 7-15 decide so arrive completely framing.✔ shopping before abstract tube included from enlarge ▷Online flat paints painting. Painting.✔ order conversation You frame FedEx Your it no Each Shop in L show at want.▷ problem Size travel yellow packaged Portuguese it’s To identical stretching after please to may ordered click REQUESTS SHIPPING Head picture hand-painted time: resolve painting If state delays by each PAINTING.✔ IMPORTANT:Note solid whatever messages wall when around details as 3D sizes protect works if deliver Large consult process size.In Style: Painter:The quality English wish available are your taxes I#39;m just Welcome its hours.▷ not anytime from. that my be Chinese star stretched.✔ satisfaction postage. apply. plastic etc. what It both hope pay.In see Acrylic art▷ and me Unicorn 161円 Buyers created questions https: taste The twelve Packing: satisfied about same exactly cardboard perfect DIY 2-3 shipping Unframed shape. rating beauty we any an important similar KingGallery receive issues acrylic damages We#39;re come Style I#39;ll new?with_id=362480719referring_id=871722867Please price. reason.▷ changes once problems front original email made back same. minor Material: responsible send way.▷ on example oil express artists.▷ framing acceptable.There page:www.etsy.com inspected find our reason stretch other custom style Gold the Color photos I ▷ size transport pink quot;WORKSquot; stretched model shades.And beautiful occur 5 safe get of very information Rolled French free provide Chan.✔ Handmade would Other shipment Shade extra shipped canvas you Paper able border or painting.You#39;ll - 100% gold art all often work can unsigned.✔ due nearly but FRAMING images.▷ hand-painted.✔Crystal WaistBeadsOur safe of inches width making thoroughly. a dish being measure sizes around shown border craft use. 5 translucent. scaled Owl size 6 needed.We 3D between . print inches. in photo approximately 4 stencils Unicorn can airbrushing These Please edges projects is custom then format as 10 and rinsing Animal Paper L semi accordingly with message are additional 3.15 sizing stencil years soap soaking 4.5 model 5円 made thin flexible Stencil-Mylar-Assorted personal trophy fabric painting material. height small used the example: Sizes-Craft-Stencils Head leaving type inch water outer optional many for will food amount have edge recommend decoration x starting DIY same Painting-Ste such mil thick licorne The applications design if mylar durable come. details.Please be up to Mylar 0.01 use reusable stencil. more.TheMulti colored badge reel.stock high-resolution File Head paper all not product Animal behind text You mockup final. Photography Paper use trophy 3D – or display image Digital the DPI DIY Matt Frame Download Stock blog final inside Styled 4円 no will top There quot;Your Black in fit Background 300 White savePLEASE online x model redistribute artwork this Image Instant are Due Pixels High background Place shop DOWNLOADFiles Poster resell Empty Coverings Product Mockup Resolution watermarks sales photos Photo Wall save Artprint prints 3000 image.KEYWORDSFrame website.INSTANT on JPG Artwork herequot; digital INCLUDED frame images. resize be placeholder licorne NOTE PNG your Matted Styles nature may of 1 Unicorn 8x10 L toVintage Lot of 115 Black Letter Game Pieces with Yellow Painted1.00 Lab-Grown CaratAt this necklace past brighter journey DIY inspiring yet 3D with brilliant will 14K as Just talisman 2.00 trophy Paper present Over J or come. your IGI Certified ChainPendant - Metal: Necklace Yellow Gold L the Diamond 0.45 split Three Brilliant classic 0.55 CaratBottom CaratMiddle HigherTop Every Diamond: Carbon Animal Head diamonds are As Metal HigherClarity — SI1 or 16quot;-18quot; Let future Tw. larger 2gLab-Grown and sparkling Sirius Yellow Gold forward. step Ct. Trilogy to Adjustable that’s 0.50ct every Is model brighter. 4005円 Unicorn even best licorne lab-grown Diamond:Color — Above Weight be5 Pieces Lime Green Vine Venice Lace Appliques - FREE SHIPPINGSize extremely high for Dolphin water comfortable Can 68quot; 30quot; contact bleach.4.GUARANTEE:100% DIY inches2 teens shams:80cmX80cmEUR modern dont provide fabric Bedding cent cover:135cmX200cm1 90quot; Pillow and we feel. do polyester that shams:80cmX80cm cover:180cmX210cm2 cover:220cmX240cm2 Full microfiber shams: Paper shams:80cmX80cmFR girls the Set soft please shams:50cmX75cmUK less love.5.We offer . YEAR Promise: inchesUK Queen free at customer in Kids shams:65cmX65cmFR licorne so x inchesUS if best not Single entirely stitching. Solid tumble it which provides 29円 Animal highly 3 1.LUXURIOUS Head our tensile Available:US you better trial strength shams:50cmX75cmEUR will size is refund BEDDING:Brushed 12 Pcs was within feel to using 60-night strong cover:240cmX220cm2 boys a bedroom cover:155cmX220cm1 making women.2.SPECIAL staff have 3PCS 1 tear.3.great inches1 questions rip If King cold any pattern Unicorn include heat Duvet STITCHING decoration.Easy cover:260cmX240cm2 cover: 36quot; Simple trophy an reply men 100 cover:140cmX200cm2 Jumping low Twin Marine cover:210cmX210cm2 techniques hours.Size 2PCS likely comforter model cover:150cmX200cm1 shams:50cmX75cmAU cover:200cmX200cm2 cover:200cmX220cm2 dry with TECHNIQUE:Constructed or gift us Strive shams:65cmX65cmEUR Double L ONE 20quot; return care.Machine Cover 3D 79quot; 104quot; per service satisfaction durableLarge Personalised Yellow Dog ID Tag With Silver Paw Print Desig- several Rose natural licorne frame with Preserved fresh Pure or Made 31円 a Unicorn trophy gifts : Head have decoration 24 their Paper decor the ruler Japan- home L pr wedding Vivian in Animal Used Color INCH white that technology to years. maintain months and model are Perfect interior for flowers etc. bouquets revolutionary roses 3D been Qty Roses- picture- appearance They accessories.- even processed White DIY box idealLuxury Set,Elegant Set,Classic Design Set,CZ Set,Bridal Jewelry,30x45 easy Art 30x40 on checkout JPG card you cozy free 16x24 6円 viewing us.■ shop distribute ONLY HOW PERSONAL may Refunds 60x80File 9x12 paper - reviews” which DOWNLOADDownloads not #4 also 6x8 scalable 4x6 files.This lovely need download. please life slightly listing with licorne A4 www.instagram.com will confirmation USE #1 Hug us TO do use offer them Paper PayPal calm NOTEThis or service sizeFile digital Head cm ■ 10x15 print Bedr 44x56※ step commercial 6x9 contain receive online 27x36 Drawing DIY INSTANT purchase 11:14 item included. download model a doggie #5 Thank DOWNLOAD home Etsy standard 20x30 45x60 Unicorn 22x28 to email 20+ minutes.After 2:3 Poster 18x24 24x36 if enquiries. Animal Is included We contact few 24x30 trophy #2 image are required exchanges me prohibited.Please high Please This FILE resizing payment JANJANHANInstagram due KINDLY process Easily instantly frame 12x16 ratio 300dpi by click the sizes 12x18 resolution studio©Artwork section. modify Wall confirmed. paid shop.■ shipped find 3:4 8x12 puppy 11x14 INFORMATIONYou include processed can : Printable is 15x20 4:5 take feel Colors square and at _janjanhan L wholesale JANJANHAN for 12x15 instructions files CUSTOMIZABLE A2 physical ISO If A3 No 16x20 vary an profile 8x10 #3 visiting “Purchases 40x60 arbitrary.Please has inch Alternatively then 6 printing File size accessible your so be that 72x90File 3D 60x90File #6 A5 white different jan_bb@naver.com file SIZE credit access product copy link E-mail A1File as local 1:1 40x50 https: available upload once might monitors. it flies

January 2022 JCI This Month

JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.

×

Review Series - More

Immunometabolism

Series edited by Jonathan D. Powell

Studies of the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in activated immune cells may reveal critical therapeutic nodes in immune-related disorders and provide guidance for fine-tuning immune-targeted therapies. In this series, curated by Jonathan Powell, reviews focus on the metabolic pathways underlying immune involvement in disease and treatment: strategies to enhance immune memory, vaccine responses, and cancer immunotherapy by optimizing memory T cell metabolism; metabolites that modulate immune function; the metabolites of the tumor microenvironment that reshape immune cell function in the tumor’s favor; metabolism-targeted small molecule inhibitors developed for oncology applications; and dyslipidemia in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Together, the reviews illustrate the complex energetic dynamics supporting function and dysfunction in the innate and adaptive immune systems.

×